This web application calculates the molecular mass average, monoisotopic, and nominal , the elemental composition, and the mass distribution spectrum of a molecule given by its chemical formula, relative element weights, or sequence. Calculations are based on the isotopic composition of the elements. Mass deficiency due to chemical bonding is not considered. Because this service is provided free of charge, there is no warranty for the service, to the extent permitted by applicable law. The service is provided "as is" without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose.
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For those needing portability, Rad Pro for Desktop works with Windows 8. Will not work with Surface tablets running Windows RT. Useful for calculating how long it takes for a radioactive isotope to decay to a specified activity. This is a common calculation for radioactive waste. Hospitals and laboratories often have drums of waste containing short-lived isotopes. When the waste in the drums decays to below the release limits, the waste may be disposed of as conventional waste or non-mixed hazardous waste.
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Radiocarbon dating also referred to as carbon dating or carbon dating is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon , a radioactive isotope of carbon. The method was developed in the late s at the University of Chicago by Willard Libby , who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work in It is based on the fact that radiocarbon 14 C is constantly being created in the atmosphere by the interaction of cosmic rays with atmospheric nitrogen. The resulting 14 C combines with atmospheric oxygen to form radioactive carbon dioxide , which is incorporated into plants by photosynthesis ; animals then acquire 14 C by eating the plants.
This is a very primitive exact mass calculator. Given the formula of a chemical species, the calculator determines the exact mass of a single isotope of that species and the relative abundance of that isotope. The isotope selected has the property that each atom in the species is the most abundant isotope of that element. For low mass chemical species, the chosen isotope is often the most abundant isotope of the species; however, this is often not the case for larger mass species due to the need for a more complex algorithm to make such a determination.